Literature Review

Difference in Production And Productivity


Production is an organized process of turning raw materials into products. It is a deliberate act of creating something valuable. In production systems, we have various input sources. They are then processed as sequences of processes. Each input determines the series, the number, and the type of operations. The result from the process will include complete parts, products, etc. The production function displays the relation between the input and output of an enterprise. Through the study of the production function, the highest work achievable with specific information or resources in a particular technological state is identified.

The production function can be described by a mathematical equation that connects the outputs to the parts of inputs.

The formula Y is f = (X1, 2, …., Xn)

Where Y is the output unit, this results from the number of inputs.

X1 = unit for labor and

X2 = machine and then on. Some production quantities are considered fixed, meaning that they do not change in response to changes in output. These quantities are not included in the equation.


It’s a broad concept and is comprehensive both in its purpose and valuable content. It’s a well-known fact that an increase in production can lead to lower production costs, which reduces the cost of selling the product, increases market access, and allows the products to be competitive on the global market. This results in higher wages for workers, fewer hours, and more time for leisure for employees. In reality, the quality of a nation, the economic prosperity and the standard of living of its citizens, and the country’s prosperity are dependent on the amount and quality of its Productivity and production. In allowing an increase in the production of services or goods for existing resources, Productivity reduces the price of goods per unit. It will enable you to sell them at lower costs, which benefits customers while providing room for an increase in employees’ wages.

The Term “Productivity” can be Described in Various ways. Some of them are :

  • Productivity is nothing other than reducing wasteful resources like materials, labor, machinery, space, time, capital, etc.
  • The term “productivity” can be described as the effort of a human (effort) to create more excellent and better quality products with lesser and more minor resources, to ensure that large numbers of people can buy the product for a reasonable price.
  • The definition of Productivity is a mental attitude and the constant desire to find better, more affordable, faster, simpler, and safer methods to complete a task producing a product or offering service.
  • The goal of Productivity is to maximize the use of resources to produce the most goods and services possible of the kind that customers most desire at the lowest cost.
  • Productivity is more efficient, which results in less fatigue for workers because of improvements in the design of plants and work areas, improved working conditions, and more straightforward work. In a broad sense, Productivity could be defined as the proportion of all available items and services to possible resources of the group.

Difference in Production And Productivity

As mentioned earlier, it is an organized process that transforms raw materials into products with more excellent value. Production of any product and service refers to the quantity of output, regardless of the number of resources required to reach the amount of the output. The production of an industry may be increased by using additional workers, installing other machinery, or putting in more raw materials regardless of the price of production.

However, increasing production doesn’t necessarily translate into increased productivity. More productive results happen when we implement the element of efficiency by which resources are utilized in the production systems.

Combining many factors like materials, land capital, machines, and labor creates an output industry. The production ratio to the other aspects of input is typically referred to as the efficiency of the factor that is being considered. The term “productivity” can also be used to measure the performance of the economy in general.

  • Mathematically Production = Input Valuation
  • Input Productivity = Factor resulting from the input factor or factor used.

Worker Efficiency:

A measure of performance by a worker measures the standard time for completing the task (lines)to the actual time taken by the worker to finish it.

To assess the efficiency of each operator, we calculated. (Standard allowable per minute) efficiency.

Time Study

The study of time is thought to be among the most commonly used measuring work. In essence, with a time-based study method, an analyst would consist of a small portion of one worker’s activities and then calculate the standard for similar tasks. (Frederick Taylor)

Time study is the method used to determine how long it will take a well-trained, skilled person working at regular work, employing a specific procedure to complete a particular job.

To define time study in and in a different way, it can be described as time study is a systematic study that is conducted for:

  • It is finding the best method and the system that is usually most effective.
  • We are standardizing the system and process for all employees who are involved.
  • Offer the appropriate formats for training all employees according to the method of training you prefer.
  • In the case of quota rates, you need to determine the length of time required by a trained and experienced employee working at regular work, employing the preferred method of performing an operation or task.

Benefits of Time Studies:

Modern companies don’t wish to buy labor measured by the amount of time spent, for example, hourly workers. The best way to purchase delivery is to buy the output or work that is useful. Time analysis is the foundation of the scientific basis of management Literature Review.

The advantages of time studies that are adequately conducted are as follows:

  • Information for decision-making about how to cut cost per unit across all production levels.
  • Provides tips for obtaining a higher output from the same number of sources.
  • Improves the work schedule by establishing an opportunity to schedule work by providing.
  • A precise standard is a foundation to plan further the use of human resources, money, machines, and material.
  • Since studying time is a positive change, it continuously concentrates attention on the cost of diminution and control.
  • Offers a reliable basis for the estimation of price.
  • Provides workers with a clear and specific purpose of their expectations over an upcoming period by clearly stating what is expected of a typical worker.
  • Assists in solving materials handling and layout problems by providing precise figures to plan the use of machines and people.
  • Improves the market value and profits potential of the business by assisting in obtaining lower costs per unit
  • Assists in the creation of budgets.
  • Offers a set of guidelines for management to meet or exceed the standards of performance established for their control.
  • The company places more importance on quality by allowing the workers to be paid only for the work in line with the specified standards.
  • In displaying what is expected of the “average” worker, It allows individuals to assess their performance against this standard and set their own working pace. Allowing workers to do this has a significant role in determining their pay.

Scope of Time Study:

Time study is used to aid in setting goals, rates, and costing. Analytical analysis or methods study is used to improve the methods of improvement.

Manual work is done. The difficulty is determining the most efficient method to accomplish tasks. The common question asked is: how much work needs to be completed in a specific duration of time? The study of time can answer this question. To make it more transparent, when a reference is made to time study, it should incorporate the prior and vital motion study.

Steps To Conduct Time Study

For a successful Time Study, first of all, the process must be followed as follows.

  • Watch the operation
  • Determine if the operator is following the correct working method
  • Request the supervisor to describe our job to the operator.
  • Modify the method of work in the event of deviation
  • Watch the operation break down into elements
  • When you are ready, prepare the time study worksheet
  • Examine the rating factors for each element.
  • Incorporate the rating factor in the column for each element.
  • Do the readings for each element.
  • Calculate the research

Time Study Equipment Requirements

The success of time studies is more dependent on the capabilities of the time study participant than the method or tool employed .proper tools for time-based research are easy to use and require only a few parts. The most basic toolkit for time study comprises:

  • Stop and watch
  • Time forms for studying
  • Pencil ballpoint or Hard pencil
  • Calculator.

The above is only the essential elements. A single watch with a decimal-minute snap-back timer and the simplest form can result in electronic or multi-channel eyes under the supervision of a knowledgeable practitioner. The most expensive and expensive equipment for studying time won’t help us improve our methods, manage individuals correctly, evaluate performance, or enhance our judgment.

Studies And Time Studies:

There are two critical measurements of work that are in use. One is based on a qualified Work Study practitioner’s capability to decide the speed of work and the time spent. This is also known as Time Study. The other method is based on the technique used and is based according to the notion that, for any given way, it is the only standard timing. The data relating to the motions that comprise the technique were derived from thorough and controlled time studies. This is referred to in Predetermined Motion Time Study, or “PMTS.” (Benjamin W. Niebel)

Standard Minimum Value (Smv) or Standard Allowed Minimum (Sam):

In industrial engineering, the average time is the amount of time needed for an ordinary skilled person operating at a moderate pace to complete a straightforward task using time study. It provides adequate allowances that allow the individual to recover from fatigue. However, when necessary, additional funding for the possibility of elements that could occur has not been accounted for.


When an average time is calculated, the standard time and allowances are also used. Although they are incorporated into the total time of one garment, it is presumed that they refer to activities that could last for up to an hour or less but that occurs in intervals throughout the day. It implies that the number of garments made in research will be more than the standard value for minutes would indicate, as there may be some breaks during the recording time.

Allowances are used to pay for employees’ energy and make calculations easier. The type of allowances used varies from factory to the next based on the environment’s level and hours of work per day. Every factory needs to reevaluate the amount of PFD and attempt to cut it down as much as possible.

Personal And Fatigue:

No one works all day. There are instances when people want to get up from work and have time out. There is no way to expect workers to work for extended durations without visiting the toilet. The amount of time they devote to non-productive activities will differ between individuals and the pace of their work. The allowance for fatigue and personal needs covers both and ensures appropriate incentives are paired with some flexibility. This allowance ensures that proper incentives are coupled with some freedom of choice. This applies to all production operations; however, it could be more pronounced than lighter work when working with heavy equipment.


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